Women have been present in the history of cinema from its very beginning. Just look at the shooting taken by Louis Lumière in 1895 where workers exit a factory. Two shifts of men, women and children cross their path at the gate. Alice Guy-Blaché was twenty-two years old at the time and she might have guessed movies were going to be her life work: later on, she shot and produced more than 600 films and even competed with silent movies’ Hollywood legends.
It was not until 1949 that Ida Lupino, known as an actress, stepped in to finish the film se co-produced and co-wrote when director Elmer Clifton suffered a mild heart attack, but she did not take directorial credit out of respect for Clifton. Afterwards she directed another 8 films, including Outrage, a film about rape. She did not stop directing achieving a successful television career throughout the 1960s and ’70s.
Alice Guy-Blaché and Ida Lupino
However, we must accept that she was an exception. Women have never had the same presence as men in culture and in the film industry either then or now.
It is still difficult to find women’s presence on the recording sets and holding the clapperboards. Scripts seldom reflect a woman’s point of view and female actors rarely play roles created by women.
We had to wait till 2010 to see Hollywood Academy awarding a woman the Oscar for Best Director handed to californian Kathryn Bigelow, and till 2018 in Spain when two women won the Spanish Academy Goya Awards for Best Picture, Best Director and Outstanding Debut of a Film Director, handed to Isabel Coixet and Carla Simon. It is therefore quite clear that women work daily in a hurt locker, as the title of Bigelow’s award winning film aptly reminds us.
This inequality must be corrected. We need multiple voices and sights from both men and women in all artistic fields. It is necessary to create a space where women, also as creators who interpret reality, can find recognition by the filmmaking industry and the public.
According to Women Make Movies, organization supporting women filmmakers since 1983, in the last 20 years the amount of women directors has not grown more than 3%. Meanwhile, the New York Film Academy reports that women direct only 16.9% of fiction films. If we take into account only the 250 top blockbuster films, figures are even worse since just 9% were directed by women (2012 data).
In all jobs behind the scenes, screenwriting, producing, editing and others, the presence of men is overwhelming: over 75% in each category.
But things aren’t much better in front of the cameras either. Only 28% of all characters are females.
In a 2014 global survey, UN Women examines not only women presence in the industry, but also how films depict women’s reality – certainly not a very flattering picture. Here are some (alarming) data from the sample under scrutiny: 30.9% of characters delivering lines are women, 7% of directors are women, 19.7% of screenwriters are women, and 22.7% of producers are women. Furthermore, sexualization is the norm for female characters around the world.
In Spain the situation is not much better. A study from CIMA, the Association of Women Filmmakers and Audiovisual Media, shows that men direct 92% of films produced in Spain. Female representation in all the other industry jobs, such as photography, production or editing, is also negligible. However, 65% of filmmaking school students are women.
Carlota Álvarez-Basso, Diego Mas Trelles. 2018.
From left to right, top to bottom: directors of the 2018 edition Laura Mora, Hanna Sköld, Pernilla August, Constanza Novick, Katja Wik, Sara Broos, Sophie Fiennes, Francesca Comencini, Nora Twomey and Marcela Said.
CIMA Report 2020. Women represent 30% of staff in feature film industry. Spanish version.
Mia Report 2020. Women in the animation industry. Spanish version.
CIMA Report 2019. Women represent 30% of staff in feature film industry. Spanish version.
Mujeres que (se) animan en España. La obra de las directoras de largometraje de animación. Un estudio de Mercedes Álvarez San Román del grupo de Investigación Televisión y Cine: Memoria, Representación e Industria (TECMERIN), publicado en la revista “Con A de Animación” de la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Spanish version.
Female directors and screenwriters in European film and audiovisual fiction production .
Gender parity moves forward in the finnish film industry.
Gender Equality: Gender Balance in the Cultural and Creative Sectors. Structured dialogue between the European Commission and the cultural sector.
Pioneering Women in Film. Parity as an objective. Spanish version.
Female Directors in Eurpean Cinema. Key figures.
The situation of women workers in the audiovisual and performing arts sector in Galicia. Galician version.
International Plan Report: 79% of young women do not feel identified with the leaders who appear in fiction. Spanish version.
Pioneering Women in Film. An initiative from the Swedish Film Institute and the Swedish Minister of Culture.
Spanish Effective Equality for Men and Women Act.
EFA Director Marion Döring’s approach on Gender equality in the Film industry and other articles on the matter.
Film researcher Conchita Martínez Tejedor’s approach on Women on the other side of the camera: where are the film directors?
CIMA Report 2018. Representativeness of women in the Spanish film sector, by Sara Cuenca Suárez, Social research from a gender perspective. Spanish version.
CIMA Report 2017. Representativeness of women in the Spanish film sector, by Sara Cuenca Suárez, Social research from a gender perspective. Spanish version.